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  • Report
  • 20 May 2022

From disability budget commitments to budget execution in Kenya: Matching disability approved allocations to actual spending and performance

This report has been produced as part of DI's work as part of the Inclusive Futures consortium. It analyses the formulation and implementation of disability-relevant budgets in Kenya.

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This publication has been produced as part of Development Initiatives’ (DI’s) work as a member of the Inclusive Futures consortium. In its role as evidence producer on disability inclusion, DI has matched disability budget commitments to implementation in five Kenyan counties and two national sectors. This report builds on previous analyses conducted by DI on disability budgeting, considering both financial and non-financial performance, the accessibility of information on disability budgets and challenges to the implementation of budgets.

Key findings

  1. There are significant gaps in accessing budget implementation information and when available, the data is not sufficiently disaggregated. Implementation and performance reports are scarce and do not provide a sufficient level of detail.
  2. There are inconsistencies between the financial and non-financial performance information provided at the national and county level. Implementation information, especially at county level, does not correspond with budgets and targets passed by government.
  3. Challenges in budget implementation of disability-inclusive budgets begin at the formulation stage of the budget. Integrated budget allocations present a challenge as in many instances stakeholders are unable to identify exactly how much is dedicated for disability initiatives and therefore cannot follow up on disability budgets. When disability budgets are mainstreamed into individual departments under line-item budgets, this challenge is even greater.
  4. At both national and county levels, the justifications for underperformance are inadequate. Poor cross-sectoral and -departmental coordination emerges as a common barrier to effective implementation at national and county level. ‘Inadequate funding’ is also commonly cited by both the national and county governments as a reason for underachievement.
  5. Underbudgeting for disability inclusion is a result of poor registration of persons with disabilities. Lack of registration prevents persons with disabilities from accessing initiatives and projects. The number of beneficiaries targeted by government budgets is therefore significantly lower than the actual number of persons with disabilities.


The National Council of Persons with Disabilities (NCPWD) should improve the registration process of persons with disabilities. Registration will enable county and national governments to accurately budget and implement disability inclusive budget.

National and county government executives should prepare and publish quarterly and annual budget implementation reports providing both financial and non-financial performance information. These reports should provide root causes for underperformance.

For proper management of disability inclusive public finance during budget implementation, disability budgeting should be accompanied by necessary policies, within legal provisions and irrespective of changes in office holders.

There should be adequate justification in making legislative amendments to disability inclusive budgets during budget implementation stage. Where the national and county assemblies must make these changes, through supplementary budgets, there should be public participation and publicising of the changes approved.

Advocacy and innovation are needed to address root causes of poor budget implementation. This can be achieved through ensuring the voices of persons with disabilities are heard during formulation stage of the budget; allocations are informed by actual spending and the government does not set unrealistic targets and OPDs, citizens and members of the legislature are equipped with relevant data (such as historical performance information).

Read the full report: From disability budget commitments to budget execution in Kenya: Matching disability approved allocations to actual spending and performance

Photo caption: Job seekers with disabilities take part in a research session at Pallet Caffe in Nairobi as part of the “Inclusive futures initiative” project.