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  • Report
  • 19 March 2020

Gender-based violence and the nexus: global lessons from the Syria crisis response for financing, policy and practice: Appendix 2

Appendix 2: Terminology


Gender-based violence (GBV)

“Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated against a person’s will and that is based on socially ascribed (i.e. gender) differences between males and females. It includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion, and other deprivations of liberty. These acts can occur in public or in private.”[1]

Sexual violence is a form of GBV and refers to any act, attempt or threat of a sexual nature that is intended to inflict physical, psychological or emotional harm. During conflict, sexual violence is often a method of war, deliberately perpetrated to achieve military, political or psychological objectives, and may escalate to crime against humanity, war crime or act of genocide. The term conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) refers to “rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, enforced sterilisation, forced marriage, and any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity perpetrated against women, men, girls or boys that is directly or indirectly linked to a conflict.”[2]

Violence against women refers specifically to acts of GBV that target women and girls. Although GBV and violence against women are often used interchangeably, this report uses the inclusive term GBV in recognition that women and girls as well as men and boys may be targeted.

Humanitarian–development–peace nexus

This report uses ‘nexus’ or ‘triple nexus’ as short-hand terms to refer to the connections between humanitarian, development and peacebuilding approaches. It aligns with the definition in the OECD DAC recommendation.[3] The ‘nexus approach’ refers to the aim of strengthening collaboration, coherence and complementarity between each of the three pillars according to their relevance to the specific context.[4]


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    WPHF currently supports projects in 12 crisis contexts, including Lebanon and Iraq.
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